Antifungal Effects of Various Measures Deployed Against Fusarium Verticillioides, Causing Maize Kernel Rot


  • Ndifon Elias Mjaika Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu-Alike, Faculty of Agriculture, P.M.B. 1010 Abakaliki, Nigeria.


Fusarium Verticillioides, Maize Kernel Rot, Pesticide, Plant Extract, Trichoderma Species


Background: Maize is one of the major staple and export crops in several countries. However, many pests and diseases severely reduce its yield. Fusarium verticillioides is a major cause of maize kernel yield loss globally.

Objectives: This research provides practical solutions to Fusarium kernel rot infections via the application of biological, chemical, and botanical agents.

Methods: Three experiments/methods (i.e. biocontrol, chemical, and botanical) were employed to control the kernel rot pathogen in vitro. Each experiment was laid out using a completely randomized design with each treatment being replicated thrice. The data collected included radial growth of the pathogen.

Results: The three experiments yielded the following outcomes. Firstly, the results of the biocontrol experiment revealed that the most effective isolates were Trichoderma harzianum isolate AIPT26, T. virens isolate BGMZ2 followed by T. hamatum isolate ZXPB. Their effects were at par. Secondly, chemical experiment showed that the highest control was from Ridomil (at 50% and 100%), Mancozeb (at 50% and 100%), and Itraconazole (at 50% and 100%). Thirdly, the plant extract experiment revealed that highest pathogen control was obtained using Ricinus communis i.e. Castor soap (at 50% and 100%). Aframomum melegueta i.e. Alligator pepper (at 100%), then Panax ginseng i.e. Ginseng (at 100%), A. melegueta (at 50%), and lastly P. ginseng (at 50%) were effective.

Conclusion: All the agents (i.e. biocontrol, chemical, and botanical) were highly effective in inhibiting Fusarium verticillioides. It is recommended that this research should be continued to integrate these three control measures so as to reduce chemical pesticides usage.