RADS Journal of Biological Research & Applied Sciences https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS <p><strong><em>RADS Journal of Biological Research and Applied Sciences</em></strong>, welcome original research articles in the field of biological, medical and health sciences for publications. The mission of this biannual JBAS (two issues per year) journal is to provide a forum for publishing new findings on scientific issues pertinent to biological sciences.</p> en-US <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br> This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> jbas@juw.edu.pk (-) jbas@juw.edu.pk (Technical Support) Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Effect of Geographic Disparity on the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Indigenous Plant Extracts Against Vibrio cholerae https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/654 <p>This study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of methanolic extracts from six medicinal plants including <em>Amomum subulatum </em>(Badi Elaichi), <em>Cinnamomum cassia </em>(sweet wood), <em>Eucalyptus camaldulensis </em>(Murray red gum), <em>Lagenaria siceraria</em> (Bottle gourd/Lauki), <em>Mentha spicata</em> (Spearmint) and <em>Zingiber officinale</em> (Ginger/Adrak) against <em>Vibrio cholerae</em>. Different dilutions (15 mg/ml, 12.5 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml, 7.5 mg/ml, and 5mg/ml) of these extracts were prepared and tested against said strains. Considerable antimicrobial activity was noted in the extracts from all tested plants, with various spectrums of activity. <em>Mentha spicata</em> showed antimicrobial activity against three clinically isolated <em>Vibrio cholera</em> O1 (AMBL1), <em>V. cholera</em> O139 (AMBL2), and <em>V. cholera</em> Wild type (AMBL3). Quantitatively, <em>Mentha spicata </em>exhibited a 3.6 mm zone against the AMBL1 strain, <em>Zingiber officinale</em> (3.1 mm) against the AMBL3 strain, <em>Cinnamomum cassia</em> (2.9 mm) against the AMBL3 strain, and <em>Eucalyptus camaldulensis </em>(2.9 mm) against AMBL2 strain at the concentration of 15mg/ml. Methanolic extract of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacteriostatic concentration (MBC) value of <em>Mentha spicata</em> was found to be 1.5 mg/ml against AMBL3 strain, followed by the extracts of <em>Cinnamomum</em> <em>cassia</em> against AMBL2 and AMBL1 strain, and extracts of <em>Lagenaria siceraria</em> against AMBL2. The extracts of <em>Cinnamomum cassia </em>expressed MIC 1.75 and 2.3 mg/ml, and MBC 1.79 and 2.4 mg/ml against AMBL2 and AMBL1 respectively, while extracts of <em>Lagenaria siceraria</em> were efficient against the AMBL2 strain of <em>Vibrio cholerae</em> with MIC and MBC value of 2.1 mg/ml. There was a significant linear correlation between the efficacy of extracts against <em>vibrio</em> spp. and the site of their sampling. Topographically, the higher the altitude of the collection site of the plant, the lower the efficacy. Antimicrobial efficacy was correlated with geo-environmental location and exposure of tested plants. The geographic correlation of samples to the efficacy against vibrio strain is the first of its kind and provides a baseline to extend the trials for other notorious agents like <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis, </em>a communicable pathogen of this region.</p> Mohammad Adnan, Gul Rahim, Shahid Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/654 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Antibacterial Properties of Harpeen Against Selected Bacterial Pathogens https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/655 <p>The occurrence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a serious threat to global health. The dried form of whey is called Harpeen and has antibacterial properties. In this study, the antibacterial properties of Harpeen were evaluated against pathogenic bacterial strains including <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Proteus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus, Salmonella typhi, Enterobacter, Bacillus subtilis</em> via agar-well diffusion method. Harpeen exhibited significantly higher antibacterial activity against <em>Proteus </em>and<em> Klebsiella pneumoniae </em>in comparison to other selected bacterial strains<em>. </em>This natural product can be utilized as a potent antimicrobial agent.</p> Syed Alasar Ali Shah, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Jadoon Khan Copyright (c) 2024 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/655 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Electrochemical Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Activity of Nickel Nanowires https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/656 <p>A major challenge in the treatment of infectious illnesses is multi-drug resistance. The study investigates the synthesis of nickel nanowires followed by their characterization through various analytical methods including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Additionally, the antibacterial properties of nickel nanowires were evaluated against Gram-positive (<em>Streptococcus pyogenes</em>) and Gram-negative (<em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Proteus mirabilis</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Enterobacter</em>) bacterial species. Nickel nanowires depicted significant antibacterial properties against <em>Enterobacter, Proteus mirabilis</em>, and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> activity than selected antibiotics called Levofloxacin. This revealed their effectiveness in combating resistance prevalent among bacteria across the world.</p> Ali Hassan, Yawar Abbas, Najam us Sahar Sadaf Zaidi Copyright (c) 2024 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/656 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Activity of Iron Nanoparticles Prepared from Clove (Syzgium aromaticum) Extract https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/657 <p>Nanobiotechnology has gained attention in the field of medicine and can provide solutions to many questions of medicine including antibiotic resistance. This study was performed to assess the antibacterial activity of iron nanoparticles synthesized by green synthesis, using <em>Syzgium aromaticum</em> (clove) as a reducing and stabilizing agent for an anticipatory use to address antibiotic resistance. Antibacterial activities of iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) analyzed against Gram-positive (<em>Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis</em>) and Gram-negative (<em>Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>) bacterial species anticipated the use of earlier to serve the purpose. &nbsp;FeNPs exhibited the highest antibacterial potential against <em>Enterococcus faecalis. </em>Further studies should be performed to know the exact potential of FeNPs against these bacterial strains.</p> Muhammad Furqan Alvi, Muhammad Imran, Syed Zaigham Abbas Copyright (c) 2024 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/657 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Effect on the Activity of Alkaline Phosphatase https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/658 <p>Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is an eco-friendly, cost-effective, and less toxic approach. Silver nitrate is used as a reducing agent and is mixed with the lemon extracts via a top-down approach. AgNPs were synthesized using different parts of lemon extracts including lemon fiber, outer layer of lemon, and lemon seeds. The formation of Ag NPs was confirmed by the change in color from yellow to reddish brown. These AgNPs were then characterized via UV-VIS spectrophotometry and depicted maximum absorption between 420 to 440 nm. An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay was performed for these silver nanoparticles at an absorbance of 405 nm. The AgNPs enhanced the enzymatic activity of ALP.</p> Asfandyar Khan, Aleem Munir, Isfahan Tauseef Copyright (c) 2024 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/658 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Development of Microbial Biosensors for Environmental Monitoring https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/659 <p>A rapidly developing method to address global pollution issues is bioremediation. We designed a microbial biosensor based on <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> for the bioremediation approach for the removal of phenol from an aqueous solution. This bacterium was highly effective in using phenol as a carbon source and maximum degradation of phenol (750 ppm) was achieved using 10% (v/v) of 18 h old inoculum at pH 7 and 35°C in 135 h.</p> Muhammad Sarfraz, Anwar Hussain Phulpoto Copyright (c) 2024 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/659 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation of Anti-Acneic Medicated Cream Using Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) Seeds https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/660 <p>Acne is an inflammatory skin condition and is caused by <em>Propionibacterium acnes</em>. <em>Citrus reticulata</em> seeds are used for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity around the world as traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to test the antibacterial activity of <em>Citrus reticulata</em> seeds and the anti-oxidant effect of the seeds on acne patients. The antibacterial susceptibility assay of the water and ethanolic extracts of <em>Citrus reticulata</em> was performed by the agar-well plate method. The extracts were assayed on microbial solutions of <em>Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, E. coli, Klebsiella,</em> and <em>P.acnes</em> the results showed that seed extracts have essential therapeutic activities. For the study of the efficiency against acne, female volunteers from the age group 20-25 were selected for testing of the 8 prepared samples. Results were calculated by the questionnaire filled out by the volunteers. Most of the samples showed positive results against acne without irritation, peeling, and drying of the skin. The results, hence, showed that <em>Citrus reticulata</em> seeds can be used as a topical treatment for acne patients.</p> Areeba Shakeel, Ayesha Zaman, Rehmat Zaman Copyright (c) 2024 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/660 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Floristic Indices, Nutrients Accumulation and Nutrients Uptake Ratios of Some Medicinal Plants Along the Altitudinal Gradients of Sand Dunes in Thal Desert of Pakistan https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/608 <p><strong>Background:</strong> In deserts, precipitation causes unequal distribution of nutrients along altitude of dunes. This can influence the nutrients uptake and distribution of plant species.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of the studies was to explore the concentration and uptake ratios of various ions in soil of Thal desert along with finding some floristic indices of medicinal plants endemic to the desert. The sites were selected in district Muzaffar Garth (Pakistan).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Sand dunes for the studies were selected as being of almost equal heights and with typical vegetations type. Plants and their samples were selected and collected in replicates and data were analyzed statistically. Soils samples were brought to laboratory for determination of electrical conductivity, nutrients, organic matter and bi-carbonates. The relationship with uptake was drawn after analysis of samples.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the upper most altitude EC, nitrogen and sodium contents were the most in quantity. While the contents of bicarbonate, phosphorus and organic matter were maximum in lower most altitude of dunes. Regarding the nutrient’s status, maximum potassium concentration (125.70mg/g) was in <em>Aerva javanica </em>leaves<em>. </em>Maximum potassium uptake and accumulation percentage (311.26%) <em>Aerva javanica </em>stem. Maximum phosphorus concentration (5.41mg/g) in <em>Haloxylone stockii </em>bark<em>. </em>Maximum phosphorus uptake and accumulation percentage (253.65%) <em>Aerva javanica </em>flower. Maximum sodium concentration (13.51mg/g) was in <em>Haloxylone stockii </em>stem. Maximum sodium uptake and accumulation percentage (93.81%) was in <em>Crotollaria burhia </em> stem. As regard the floristic indices, at the most top 1<sup>st</sup> altitude zone of sand dune, maximum frequency was of <em>Caligonum polygonoides, Aerva javanica, Crotollaria burhia and Symbopogon jawarancusa. </em>In 2<sup>nd</sup> altitude, maximum frequency was of <em>Haloxylone stocksii, Caligonum polygonoides, Aerva javanica and Crotollaria burhia. </em>In altitude 3, maximum frequency was of <em>Aerva javanica and Fogonia arabica. </em>Similarly, in altitude 1, maximum density was of <em>Symbopogon jawarancusa. </em>In altitude zone 2, maximum density was of <em>Crotollaria burhia</em> and in 3<sup>rd</sup> altitude zone, maximum density was of <em>Aesphodalus tenuifolius.</em></p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is concluded that altitudinal variations of soil physio-chemical properties were found in sand dunes. Also, vegetation varied along soil physical and chemical properties.</p> Ghulam Yasin, Iqra Anwer, Adeela Altaf, Shafaq Sohail Copyright (c) 2024 RADS Journal of Biological Research & Applied Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/608 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding the Impact of Sodium Metabisulfite (Na2S2O5) Exposure on Soft Tissues (Gill, Kidney and Liver) of Freshwater Fish Labeo rohita https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/640 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Sodium metabisulfite (Na<sub>2</sub>S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>) is a disinfectant and preservative agent which is commonly used in food industry and polluted water bodies through industrial wastes.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Current study was conducted to observe the impact of widely used salt on the gills, kidney and liver of <em>Labeo rohita</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Fish were divided into three groups. One group treated as control. Two groups were exposed to sodium metabisulfite in different concentrations (29 mg/L and 68 mg/L) for 28 days.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The 96h LC<sub>50 </sub>value for sodium metabisulfite (Na<sub>2</sub>S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>) was found to be 130 mg/L. Histological changes revealed moderate to severe damage in time and concentration dependent manners. Photomicrograph of gills of exposed fish showed different histological alterations such as hyperplasia, marginal gill lamellae, blood congestion, gills lamellae aneurysm and distortion of the gill cells. Results indicated that exposure to sodium metabisulfite caused severe progressive alterations such as melanomacrophage, cytoplasmic vacuolization, hepatocytes and cluster nuclei in liver tissues of exposed fish. Kidney tissues of treated <em>L. rohita</em> revealed different histological changes including, wide hypertrophied nucleus, sinusoidal spaces, cloudy swelling degeneration, glomerular expansion and tubules starting the degeneration process as compared with control fish.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our results represent the pioneering report demonstrating that sodium metabisulfite can act as a potent toxic agent for <em>Labeo rohita</em>.</p> Irfan Ahmad, Shabbir Ahmad, Hasnain Akmal, Khurram Shahzad Copyright (c) 2024 RADS Journal of Biological Research & Applied Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/640 Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Antifungal Effects of Various Measures Deployed Against Fusarium Verticillioides, Causing Maize Kernel Rot https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/639 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Maize is one of the major staple and export crops in several countries. However, many pests and diseases severely reduce its yield.<em> Fusarium verticillioides </em>is a major cause of maize kernel yield loss globally.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>This research provides practical solutions to <em>Fusarium</em> kernel rot infections via the application of biological, chemical, and botanical agents.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Three experiments/methods (i.e. biocontrol, chemical, and botanical) were employed to control the kernel rot pathogen <em>in vitro</em>. Each experiment was laid out using a completely randomized design with each treatment being replicated thrice. The data collected included radial growth of the pathogen.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The three experiments yielded the following outcomes. Firstly, the results of the biocontrol experiment revealed that the most effective isolates were <em>Trichoderma harzianum</em> isolate AIPT26, <em>T. virens</em> isolate BGMZ2 followed by <em>T. hamatum</em> isolate ZXPB. Their effects were at par. Secondly, chemical experiment showed that the highest control was from Ridomil (at 50% and 100%), Mancozeb (at 50% and 100%), and Itraconazole (at 50% and 100%). Thirdly, the plant extract experiment revealed that highest pathogen control was obtained using <em>Ricinus communis</em> i.e. Castor soap (at 50% and 100%). <em>Aframomum melegueta</em> i.e. Alligator pepper (at 100%), then <em>Panax ginseng</em> i.e. Ginseng (at 100%), <em>A. melegueta</em> (at 50%), and lastly <em>P. ginseng</em> (at 50%) were effective.</p> <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 200%;"><strong>Conclusion:</strong> All the agents (i.e. biocontrol, chemical, and botanical) were highly effective in inhibiting <em>Fusarium verticillioides.</em> It is recommended that this research should be continued to integrate these three control measures so as to reduce chemical pesticides usage.</p> Ndifon Elias Mjaika Copyright (c) 2024 RADS Journal of Biological Research & Applied Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/639 Sat, 02 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000