RADS Journal of Biological Research & Applied Sciences https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS <p><strong><em>RADS Journal of Biological Research and Applied Sciences</em></strong>, welcome original research articles in the field of biological, medical and health sciences for publications. The mission of this biannual JBAS (two issues per year) journal is to provide a forum for publishing new findings on scientific issues pertinent to biological sciences.</p> Reyazuddin Research & Development Society, Jinnah University for Women,Karachi en-US RADS Journal of Biological Research & Applied Sciences 2305-8722 <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br> This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> Evaluation of the Methanol Extract and Fractions of the Aerial Parts of Emilia coccinea Against Selected Fungal Isolates https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/582 <p><strong>Background: </strong><em>Emilia</em> <em>coccinea</em> (EC) commonly known as scarlet tassel flower and a fast-growing annual herb is used ethno-medicinally for treating different types of fungal infections. Selected species of <em>Candida, Aspergillus, Microsporum, Rhodotorula </em>and<em> Trichophyton </em>genera are known pathogenic fungi that could cause skin and life-threatening infections, especially in immune-compromised patients.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aims to evaluate the antifungal property of the aerial parts of EC extract and fractions against selected clinical isolate of fungi.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The aerial parts of the plant were pulverized, extracted with methanol and portioned into n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate and aqueous fractions. Modified agar well diffusion method was used to evaluate the antifungal potential of the methanol extracts and fractions. This activity was achieved by increasing the concentration of the methanol extract and fractions from 40 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml. The selected isolates are <em>Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Microsporum audounii, Rhodotorula glutinis </em>and<em> Trichophyton rubrum</em>.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: <em>Trichophyton rubrum </em>and<em> Rhodotorula glutinis </em>showed susceptibility to the methanol extract of EC at 40 mg/ml for the former and between 60 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml for the later. <em>Candida albicans </em>displayed susceptibility to the n-hexane, ethylacetate and dichloromethane fractions, <em>Trichophyton rubrum</em> further showed susceptibility to the aqueous fraction. <em>Microsporum audounii</em> susceptibility was observed in the dichloromethane fraction at 100 mg/ml. The lowest MIC value was observed with the dichloromethane fraction for the different clinical isolate study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The methanol extract, n-hexane, dichloromethane and aqueous fractions of EC possessed antifungal activity against <em>Candida albicans, Microsporum audounii </em>and<em> Trichophyton rubrum</em>. However, the dichloromethane fraction was found more effective against <em>Candida albicans</em>.</p> Emmanuel Eimiomodebheki Odion Chidozie Onwubiko Amole Muhammed Junior Frank Solum Dowe Ejiro Copyright (c) 2023 RADS Journal of Biological Research & Applied Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 14 1 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Studies of Various Extracts of Maranta arundinacea L rhizomes https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/603 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Due to widespread availability, low cost, safety, and little side effects, herbal medications are now more often used than ever before. Medicinal plants with various pharmacological effects may be found in a variety of places in nature. An herbaceous, perennial tropical plant known as <em>Maranta arundinacea</em> L. offers a number of built-in medical benefits, including efficacy as an antioxidant and an antibacterial.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>This plant's rhizome extracts were tested for phytochemical analysis, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial efficacy against some Gram-negative bacteria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In the current work, phytochemical analysis of <em>M. arundinacea</em> rhizome’s various extracts was done by standard methods and its free radicals scavenge activity was assessed by using the well-known (in-vitro) model of DPPH while antibacterial activity was estimated by the disc diffusion method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Phenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides and steroids were found in the <em>M. arundinacea</em> rhizome extracts after a preliminary phytochemical screening, which may be the source of the plant's antioxidant and antibacterial action. The percentage inhibition (DPPH) of its water extract (80.11±3.2%) was higher than methanol extract (70.20±2.5%) followed by chloroform (37.50±1.8%) and petroleum ether extract (20.40±1.4%) at concentration 1mg/ml. The minimum inhibition zone developed against <em>Enterobacter aerogene</em> was (16±0.01mm)<em>, Salmonella typhimurium </em>(19±0.03mm)<em>, Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>(18±0.02mm) and<em> Escherichia coli</em> (24±0.04mm), in methanolic extract, while the inhibition zone developed against <em>E. aerogene</em> was (18.5±0.02mm)<em>, S. typhimurium </em>(19.5±0.03mm)<em>, P. aeruginosa </em>(20±0.03mm) and<em> E. coli</em> (29±0.05mm), in water extract and no inhibition zone was developed in petroleum ether and chloroform extract.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It was concluded that <em>M. arundinacea</em> rhizome water and methanol extracts posses a strong antioxidant and antibacterial activity due to its phytochemicals which may offer an option for the treatment of illnesses linked to oxidative stress and for pathogens that are resistant to a number of drugs.</p> Muhammad Khalid Saeed Naseem Zahra Asma Saeed Khurrum Shehzad Shaista Nawaz Syed Hussain Imam Abdi Quratulain Syed Copyright (c) 2023 RADS Journal of Biological Research & Applied Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 14 1 Evaluation of Physico-Mechanical Characteristics of Different Paddy Cultivars Grown in Humid Subtropical Region of Eastern China https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/610 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Paddy during various stages i.e. loading, transportation, storage, handling etc. occurs severe losses, which can be reduced by designing appropriate post-harvest machineries using physico-mechanical properties.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The study aimed to assess the variation in physico-mechanical properties of thirteen different paddy cultivars.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study was carried out at the College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, China. Thirteen different freshly harvested paddy cultivars were collected from Nanjing. Collected paddy cultivars before experiment were cleaned removing extraneous materials. Paddy cultivars were sealed polythene bags, and were then kept in refrigerator at a temperature of 5 ºC for 7 days for uniform distribution of moisture. The required amount of samples from each cultivar was accordingly taken for evaluating their physical and mechanical properties.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results when assessed were statistically different (<em>p</em>?0.05) from each other. The average values of different paddy cultivars for length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter, arithmetic mean diameter, square mean diameter, equivalent diameter, surface area, volume, sphericity, aspect ratio, thousand kernel weight, bulk density, true density, porosity, hardness and toughness (for both horizontal and vertical orientations) were calculated to be 7.94mm, 3.32mm, 2.26mm, 3.84mm, 4.51mm, 2.56mm, 3.64mm, 46.53mm<sup>2</sup>, 29.74mm<sup>3</sup>, 0.49%, 0.42, 28.64 gm, 568.31 kg m<sup>-3</sup>, 1225.20 kg m<sup>-3</sup>, 54%, 46.09 N, 14.75 N, 16.06 mJ and 6.90 mJ respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>A wide variation was observed for each parameter while comparing different paddy cultivars. This wide variation in result will negatively affect the performance of the equipment and machinery being used for post-harvest practices. The study concludes that it is essential for industries involved in equipment design and machinery production, as well as end-users responsible for their implementation, to take into account these substantial differences among cultivars when making their decisions.</p> Shakeel Ahmed Soomro Kunjie Chen Shakeel Hussain Chattha Bakhtawar Wagan Farman Ali Chandio Fangfang Ji Aamir Lund Sohail Ahmed Soomro Salauhddin Soomro Copyright (c) 2023 RADS Journal of Biological Research & Applied Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-23 2023-09-23 14 1 Allelopathic Potential of Acacia modesta Wall., on the Growth of three Brassica Species https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/546 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Allelopathy is the process of a plant's chemical release into the environment having direct or indirect, beneficial or negative effects on another plant. In the present work, we investigated the allelopathic interaction of <em>Acacia modesta</em> in the different extracts to show significant effects regarding the growth and germination of test species.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The main objective of this research is to study how the allelopathic activity of <em>Acacia modesta</em> affects the growth of three Brassica species in various extracts (Aqueous extracts, litter &amp; mulching).</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Fresh leaves of <em>Acacia modesta</em> were collected from the Botanical Garden, Islamia College Peshawar, dried in the shade, and ground, whereas the glass ware was rinsed and sterilized for at least 4 hours at 170°C. Seeds of the <em>Brassica </em>crop were used and checked for viability in H<sub>2</sub>O. The Petri dishes were incubated at 25°C for 72 hours, then the effects of various extracts were examined, and lastly, readings from the Petri dishes were obtained.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>According to our findings, the leaf extracts of <em>Acacia modesta</em> had a substantial effect on the germination and growth of <em>Brassica </em>species. <em>Brassica campestris</em> (10g/48h dry &amp; 5g/24h fresh), <em>Brassica napus</em> (10g/24h), and <em>Brassica juncea</em> (10g/48h dry &amp; 5g/48h fresh) leaf extracts have a greater effect than the control.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our outcomes concluded that in comparison of the test species in all the experiments, <em>Brassica campestris </em>and <em>Brassica juncea </em>were highly affected by the allelopathy of <em>A. modesta</em> which necessitates further evaluation.</p> Barkat Ullah Nisar Ahmad Khan Abida Muhammad Nauman Khan Abdul Razzaq Shah Khalid Alevcan Kaplan Majid Iqbal Maryam Bibi Sarah Abdul Razak Copyright (c) 2023 RADS Journal of Biological Research & Applied Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-08-25 2023-08-25 14 1 Probiotics, A source of Modifying Gut Microbiota to Reduce the Negative Effects of COVID-19; The Study about the Management of Allergic Rhinitis https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/570 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The current study was designed to investigate the prescribing practice of probiotics to enhance the immunity of patients during COVID-19. Interestingly other than anosmia, nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea are the reported symptoms similar to that of seasonal allergic rhinitis (AR) that led to misdiagnosis and unnecessary anxiety related to invasive diagnostic tests of corona virus.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The consequent panic can be reduced by strengthening the immunity and addressing the disease having similar signs and symptoms as rhinitis by incorporating the “Probiotics”. Nutritional adequacy improves general health and immunity to prevent and assuage infections. Moreover, the adoption will work to improve the fear.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study was conducted through the questionnaire based on International Survey on the Management of Allergic Rhinitis and the targeted population doctors, physicians, nurses and pharmacists were asked about their knowledge of rhinitis and its management via probiotics. In study the patients were also included to respond regarding the management strategies of allergic rhinitis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The analysis revealed a significant correlation between the experience of healthcare providers and the number of rhinitis patients with moderate to severe symptoms seen per week. However low adoptability was observed among patients for probiotics.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Probiotics, if accepted by the community, can significantly reduce the frequency of allergic rhinitis by strengthening the immune system. There is a strong imperative to raise awareness among the population about the benefits of adopting this remedy for rhinitis.</p> Kiran Rafiq Shagufta Nesar Shafaque Mehboob Moona Mehboob Muhammad Azhar Mughal Afshan Khalid Javeria Iftikhar Sameer Ali Muhammad Usman Muhammad Uzair Noor Sheikh Sami Copyright (c) 2023 RADS Journal of Biological Research & Applied Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-27 2023-09-27 14 1