RADS Journal of Biological Research & Applied Sciences https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS <p><strong><em>RADS Journal of Biological Research and Applied Sciences</em></strong>, welcome original research articles in the field of biological, medical and health sciences for publications. The mission of this biannual JBAS (two issues per year) journal is to provide a forum for publishing new findings on scientific issues pertinent to biological sciences.</p> Reyazuddin Research & Development Society, Jinnah University for Women,Karachi en-US RADS Journal of Biological Research & Applied Sciences 2305-8722 <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br> This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> Floristic Indices, Nutrients Accumulation and Nutrients Uptake Ratios of Some Medicinal Plants Along the Altitudinal Gradients of Sand Dunes in Thal Desert of Pakistan https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/608 <p><strong>Background:</strong> In deserts, precipitation causes unequal distribution of nutrients along altitude of dunes. This can influence the nutrients uptake and distribution of plant species.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of the studies was to explore the concentration and uptake ratios of various ions in soil of Thal desert along with finding some floristic indices of medicinal plants endemic to the desert. The sites were selected in district Muzaffar Garth (Pakistan).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Sand dunes for the studies were selected as being of almost equal heights and with typical vegetations type. Plants and their samples were selected and collected in replicates and data were analyzed statistically. Soils samples were brought to laboratory for determination of electrical conductivity, nutrients, organic matter and bi-carbonates. The relationship with uptake was drawn after analysis of samples.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the upper most altitude EC, nitrogen and sodium contents were the most in quantity. While the contents of bicarbonate, phosphorus and organic matter were maximum in lower most altitude of dunes. Regarding the nutrient’s status, maximum potassium concentration (125.70mg/g) was in <em>Aerva javanica </em>leaves<em>. </em>Maximum potassium uptake and accumulation percentage (311.26%) <em>Aerva javanica </em>stem. Maximum phosphorus concentration (5.41mg/g) in <em>Haloxylone stockii </em>bark<em>. </em>Maximum phosphorus uptake and accumulation percentage (253.65%) <em>Aerva javanica </em>flower. Maximum sodium concentration (13.51mg/g) was in <em>Haloxylone stockii </em>stem. Maximum sodium uptake and accumulation percentage (93.81%) was in <em>Crotollaria burhia </em> stem. As regard the floristic indices, at the most top 1<sup>st</sup> altitude zone of sand dune, maximum frequency was of <em>Caligonum polygonoides, Aerva javanica, Crotollaria burhia and Symbopogon jawarancusa. </em>In 2<sup>nd</sup> altitude, maximum frequency was of <em>Haloxylone stocksii, Caligonum polygonoides, Aerva javanica and Crotollaria burhia. </em>In altitude 3, maximum frequency was of <em>Aerva javanica and Fogonia arabica. </em>Similarly, in altitude 1, maximum density was of <em>Symbopogon jawarancusa. </em>In altitude zone 2, maximum density was of <em>Crotollaria burhia</em> and in 3<sup>rd</sup> altitude zone, maximum density was of <em>Aesphodalus tenuifolius.</em></p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is concluded that altitudinal variations of soil physio-chemical properties were found in sand dunes. Also, vegetation varied along soil physical and chemical properties.</p> Ghulam Yasin Iqra Anwer Adeela Altaf Shafaq Sohail Copyright (c) 2024 RADS Journal of Biological Research & Applied Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 15 1 Understanding the Impact of Sodium Metabisulfite (Na2S2O5) Exposure on Soft Tissues (Gill, Kidney and Liver) of Freshwater Fish Labeo rohita https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/640 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Sodium metabisulfite (Na<sub>2</sub>S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>) is a disinfectant and preservative agent which is commonly used in food industry and polluted water bodies through industrial wastes.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Current study was conducted to observe the impact of widely used salt on the gills, kidney and liver of <em>Labeo rohita</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Fish were divided into three groups. One group treated as control. Two groups were exposed to sodium metabisulfite in different concentrations (29 mg/L and 68 mg/L) for 28 days.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The 96h LC<sub>50 </sub>value for sodium metabisulfite (Na<sub>2</sub>S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>) was found to be 130 mg/L. Histological changes revealed moderate to severe damage in time and concentration dependent manners. Photomicrograph of gills of exposed fish showed different histological alterations such as hyperplasia, marginal gill lamellae, blood congestion, gills lamellae aneurysm and distortion of the gill cells. Results indicated that exposure to sodium metabisulfite caused severe progressive alterations such as melanomacrophage, cytoplasmic vacuolization, hepatocytes and cluster nuclei in liver tissues of exposed fish. Kidney tissues of treated <em>L. rohita</em> revealed different histological changes including, wide hypertrophied nucleus, sinusoidal spaces, cloudy swelling degeneration, glomerular expansion and tubules starting the degeneration process as compared with control fish.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our results represent the pioneering report demonstrating that sodium metabisulfite can act as a potent toxic agent for <em>Labeo rohita</em>.</p> Irfan Ahmad Shabbir Ahmad Hasnain Akmal Khurram Shahzad Copyright (c) 2024 RADS Journal of Biological Research & Applied Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 15 1 Antifungal Effects of Various Measures Deployed Against Fusarium Verticillioides, Causing Maize Kernel Rot https://jbas.juw.edu.pk/index.php/JBAS/article/view/639 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Maize is one of the major staple and export crops in several countries. However, many pests and diseases severely reduce its yield.<em> Fusarium verticillioides </em>is a major cause of maize kernel yield loss globally.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>This research provides practical solutions to <em>Fusarium</em> kernel rot infections via the application of biological, chemical, and botanical agents.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Three experiments/methods (i.e. biocontrol, chemical, and botanical) were employed to control the kernel rot pathogen <em>in vitro</em>. Each experiment was laid out using a completely randomized design with each treatment being replicated thrice. The data collected included radial growth of the pathogen.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The three experiments yielded the following outcomes. Firstly, the results of the biocontrol experiment revealed that the most effective isolates were <em>Trichoderma harzianum</em> isolate AIPT26, <em>T. virens</em> isolate BGMZ2 followed by <em>T. hamatum</em> isolate ZXPB. Their effects were at par. Secondly, chemical experiment showed that the highest control was from Ridomil (at 50% and 100%), Mancozeb (at 50% and 100%), and Itraconazole (at 50% and 100%). Thirdly, the plant extract experiment revealed that highest pathogen control was obtained using <em>Ricinus communis</em> i.e. Castor soap (at 50% and 100%). <em>Aframomum melegueta</em> i.e. Alligator pepper (at 100%), then <em>Panax ginseng</em> i.e. Ginseng (at 100%), <em>A. melegueta</em> (at 50%), and lastly <em>P. ginseng</em> (at 50%) were effective.</p> <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 200%;"><strong>Conclusion:</strong> All the agents (i.e. biocontrol, chemical, and botanical) were highly effective in inhibiting <em>Fusarium verticillioides.</em> It is recommended that this research should be continued to integrate these three control measures so as to reduce chemical pesticides usage.</p> Ndifon Elias Mjaika Copyright (c) 2024 RADS Journal of Biological Research & Applied Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 15 1