Floristic Indices, Nutrients Accumulation and Nutrients Uptake Ratios of Some Medicinal Plants Along the Altitudinal Gradients of Sand Dunes in Thal Desert of Pakistan


  • Ghulam Yasin Department of Botany, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan.Pakistan
  • Iqra Anwer Department of Botany, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan.Pakistan
  • Adeela Altaf Department of Environmental Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan.Pakistan
  • Shafaq Sohail Department of Botany, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan. Pakistan


Floristic Indices, Nutrients, Medicinal Plants, Sand Dunes, Thal Desert


Background: In deserts, precipitation causes unequal distribution of nutrients along altitude of dunes. This can influence the nutrients uptake and distribution of plant species.

Objective: The objective of the studies was to explore the concentration and uptake ratios of various ions in soil of Thal desert along with finding some floristic indices of medicinal plants endemic to the desert. The sites were selected in district Muzaffar Garth (Pakistan).

Methods: Sand dunes for the studies were selected as being of almost equal heights and with typical vegetations type. Plants and their samples were selected and collected in replicates and data were analyzed statistically.  Soils samples were brought to laboratory for determination of electrical conductivity, nutrients, organic matter and bi-carbonates. The relationship with uptake was drawn after analysis of samples.

Results: In the upper most altitude EC, nitrogen and sodium contents were the most in quantity. While the contents of bicarbonate, phosphorus and organic matter were maximum in lower most altitude of dunes. Regarding the nutrient’s status, maximum potassium concentration (125.70mg/g) was in Aerva javanica leaves. Maximum potassium uptake and accumulation percentage (311.26%) Aerva javanica stem. Maximum phosphorus concentration (5.41mg/g) in Haloxylone stockii bark. Maximum phosphorus uptake and accumulation percentage (253.65%) Aerva javanica flower. Maximum sodium concentration (13.51mg/g) was in Haloxylone stockii stem. Maximum sodium uptake and accumulation percentage (93.81%) was in Crotollaria  burhia   stem. As regard the floristic indices, at the most top 1st altitude zone of sand dune, maximum frequency was of Caligonum polygonoides, Aerva javanica, Crotollaria burhia and Symbopogon jawarancusa. In 2nd altitude, maximum frequency was of Haloxylone stocksii, Caligonum polygonoides, Aerva javanica and Crotollaria burhia. In altitude 3, maximum frequency was of Aerva javanica and Fogonia arabica. Similarly, in altitude 1, maximum density was of Symbopogon jawarancusa. In altitude zone 2, maximum density was of Crotollaria burhia and in 3rd altitude zone, maximum density was of Aesphodalus tenuifolius.

Conclusion: It is concluded that altitudinal variations of soil physio-chemical properties were found in sand dunes. Also, vegetation varied along soil physical and chemical properties.