Insight into (β) Cell Development to Rebuild Bonafide β-Cells: Reprogramming Verses Differentiation of Stem Cells

  • Misbah Sultana Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Lahore, Pakistan
  • Saima Jadoon University of Lahore
  • Arif Malik Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Lahore, Pakistan
Keywords: Pancreatic β-cells, Oxidative stress, Transplantation, Therapy, Pluripotent stem cells.


Background: Pancreatic β-cells for insulin secretion are the main regulators of mammalian metabolic process. Diabetes and hyperglycemia make the patient dependable on exogenous insulin, which is due to the lack of functional β-cells. Oxidative stress also plays an important role in the aggravation of this pathological condition. Recent insights into the development of β-cells along with the pluripotent stem cells discovery have opened new ways to generate β-cells that can help in the screening of various drugs and also in the transplantation therapy since, these pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) can develop in any type of cell, due to which any defective tissue can be substituted.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate current strategies which can help to control diabetes mellitus.

Methodology: Methodological approach of this review was based on the comparison of theoretical studies and researches related to diabetes mellitus.

Results: In vitro or in vivo, replication might be repeated based on proteins or through small molecules. Efforts have been made through which differentiated cells can be converted into β-cells by transcriptional regulators that are the significant players for the development, as well as responsible to identify conditions that cause replication of β-cell both in vitro and in vivo. The recent strategies can be applied for new β-cells generation and also highlights the future aspects regarding the mechanisms that govern later differentiation stages.

Conclusion: This review provides an update on generating β-cells from different strategies and also brief about the development and function of β-cells that how they could help to control diabetes.