RADS Journal of Biological Research and Applied Sciences welcomes authors to submit their articles for publication. The guidelines are provided to ensure smooth submission, review, and publication processes. The journal will only consider manuscripts that have not been published before or submitted elsewhere for publication. The reanalysis of previously published data can be acceptable and the authors to supply a copy of previous related articles so the journal can decide if the new one is sufficiently novel to merit publication. The originality of the data submitted is the responsibility of all authors and the journal is not responsible for the contents of the articles published.
The title page of the manuscript should contain an informative and attractive title of the manuscript.
The manuscript should contain the list of all authors (first, middle initial and last name of all authors with highest qualification with their affiliation with the institution or department, official telephone number, email of all the authors. All authors must designate their position in superscript. The corresponding author should be indicated by an asterisk).
Language and format:
Manuscripts must be written in English and supplied in MS Word / pdf format. Times New Roman or Arial font should be used with a font size of 12 and double spacing throughout.
Length of the manuscript:
Short communications must be less than 650 words with 8-9 references. Letters must not exceed 450 words and 4-5 references. Review articles must not be more than 5000 words. For research articles, the manuscript must not exceed 4000 words and up to 35 references are allowed (or up to 45 references in the case of novel research). Limited self-citation is allowed (but all citations must be relevant to the article). The manuscript should include an abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, conclusion, references and acknowledgement sections. The manuscript should be typed on A4 paper. Color photographs will only be published online while black & white photographs will be published in print format.
The abstract should be sent separately. A structured abstract must not be more than 250 words. It should present a concise description of the research (background, objective of the study, methods, main outcome measure(s), results and conclusion). Up to five key words/ indexing terms should be provided below the abstract. Figures and tables must not be included in the abstract. Avoid to use abbreviations in the abstract.
The Introduction should present the aim and purpose of the research and should be clear and focused on the research question. The introduction should be short and simple present highlight the main problem that addressed
Materials and Methods:
The Results section should include primarily comprehensive findings and conclusive data be provided that strongly support. Repetition of data must be avoided Tables and figures should be typed or drawn separately on a new page (or attached as separate files) and should be well explained. Sharp images for figures / photographs are required. Blurred or unclear photographs and figures not be accepted. Tables should be cited in parenthesis after the punctuation mark e.g. (Table1). Figures may be sent in the form of JPG, PNG or Tiff formats.
In this section the results are interpreted concisely, and specifically in the light of relevant literature. Highlight the unique and key features of your research and put your results in the context of the totality of the significant proof. Describe the drawbacks of your research, and go into the inferences of your results for upcoming research Appropriately discuss sex /or gender like variable in the results, and the shortcomings of the data. Suitable and accurate statistical analysis must be used in the manuscript Do not repeat in detail data or other information given in other parts of the manuscript, such as in the Introduction or the results section.
Link the conclusions with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data.
Authors should provide a logical conclusion drawn from their findings supported by the data.
Journal require a disclosure of funding source like Govt funded project, privately funded, sponsorship
Incudes materials provided in research or Instruments were placed in the institution /organization
Acknowledgements (if desired) should be included before the references.
Competing interests statement for the authors:
Authors must declare that she/ he has no meaningful competing, personal professional or business interests that could have an effect on the carried out work and its presentation explained / expressed in this manuscript. Likewise, they may also explain likely competing financial, personal, professional or business interests.
All authors should declare their contribution to the research and the preparation of the publication.
It would be ideal that a reference cited in the manuscript referred to the content is present in the reference section and it should be given in full. It is not allowed to include the reference personal communication and article submitted and unpublished. Apart of work cited in manuscript have a unique number placed in brackets, these numbers are always in the order of citation. If the same work is again need to cite in the same article then author should assign the same number. Numbers of software’s are available that can help in preparing references like Zotero and Endnote etc. The reference style recommended is set up on National Information Standards Organization Bibliographic References as modified by National Library of Medicine (NLM) for its databases. Details are given in "Citing Medicine": (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7256/).
The in-text references system used is citation-sequence. Each citation is designated by a number enclosed in parenthesis. The citations should be numbered and ordered in the Reference list following the sequences in which they first appear within the text. The general order for the citation sequence reference system is; name of author(s), full title of cited article, name of journal in which article appeared (do not use periods with abbreviated words), publication year, journal volume, issue number, finally first and the last number of page. Name of journal should be abbreviated according to the PubMed Journals Database (NLM, NIH).
Follow the styles shown in the examples below.
Khalil B. Observation on the food and feeding habits of Cynoglossus bilineatus (family: Cynoglossidae) from Karachi coast, Pakistan. Rads J Biol Res Appl Sci. 2012; 3(1):1-6.
Naqvi II, Kanwal G, Shafi A. Teaching undergraduates students through connectivity: part 3. Rads J Biol Res Appl Sci. 2012;3(2):18-20.
Wasti AZ, Haider S, Rashid S, Fatima N, Ashiq A, Iqbal S, et al. The biochemical profile of chronic kidney disease patients. Rads J Biol Res Appl Sci. 2013;4(1):5-10.
Talaro KP, Talaro A. Foundations in microbiology: basic principles. Boston: McGraw-Hill; 2002.
Article or Chapter in a Book:
Forman MS, Valsamakis A. Specimen collection, transport, and processing: virology. In: Versalovic J, Carroll KC, Jorgensen JH, Funke G, Landry ML, Warnock DW, editors. Manual of clinical microbiology, 10th ed. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 2011. p. 1276-88.
Lewis A. How Microbes May Influence Our Behavior. The scientist: exploring life, inspiring innovation; 2017 Sep 1 [cited 2017 Sep 19]. Available from: http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/50146/title/How-Microbes-May-Influence-Our-Behavior/
The manuscript should be accompanied by a covering letter signed by the corresponding author.
The names of three potential reviewers must be provided with the manuscript. Suggested reviewers must be experts in the field and should not have relevant competing interests (e.g. working with the authors, family members, or based at the same institution).
Peer Review Policy:
The RADS Journal of Biological Research and Applied Science uses "double blind" peer review where by both reviewers and authors remain anonymous throughout the process. Submitted manuscripts are screened by the editors to check the scope, suitability and formatting. Rejected manuscripts will be sent back to the authors. Potentially suitable manuscripts are then sent to potential reviewers who are asked to respond within two weeks and then given 2-3 weeks to review. If reviewers fail to respond with in the given time, they may be replaced with alternates to keep the review process moving along. Should the referees' reports contradict one another or a report is unnecessarily delayed, a further expert opinion will be sought.
Ethical Approval of Research:
If any human or animal studies were carried out during the course of research a copy of the letter of ethical approval from the institutional ethical review board(IRB) should be attached.
Disclosure of conflicts of interest:
All manuscripts, case studies, reviews, short reviews, and letters to the editor submitted to the journal must be accompanied by a conflict of interest form which can be downloaded from the journal website. The form should be filled in by the principal author and signed by all coauthors. All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with any people or organizations that might be affected by the submitted work or could influence its interpretation. Any temporary, permanent or part-time employment, or consultancy must be declared. Direct or indirect resources or funds provided for the research or publication by organizations must be disclosed. Authors must also declare any non-financial conflicts of interest.
Misconduct by authors:
RADS Journal of Biological Research and Applied Science is equipped with Turnitin (text matching / anti-plagiarism software provided by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan). This is used to check for plagiarism and redundancy in submitted manuscripts. All submitted manuscripts are first checked for similarity index on Turnitin. Manuscripts with similarity index above 19 % will be automatically rejected and sent back to the authors. You might consider including a link to the guidelines mentioned below: