Studies on the Reproduction and Growth of Hoopoe (Upupa epops) in District Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan

  • Muhammad Idnan
  • Hafiz Muhammad Jamil
  • Arshad Javid
  • Muddasir Hassan Abbasi
  • Muhammad Altaf
  • Asif Shahzad
  • Asma Naeem
Keywords: Hoopoe, Nesting, Habitat, Breeding, Reproductive Success, Conservation.


Background: Hoopoe, Upupa epops belongs to the family Upupidae. It is found across Asia, Europe and Africa. Its habitat includes grasslands, savannas, wooded steppes, and forests. Main threats to the survival of the Hoopoe are habitat loss and climate changes.

Objectives: The present study was planned in district Gujrat (32.7037°N, 73.9585°E), Punjab Pakistan. Due to habitat loss and cutting of Sheesham tree (Dalbergia sissoo), the natural nesting sites was very scarce.

Methodology: Thirty three nested sites of Hoopoe were spotted and checked for chick’s presence regarding timing and breeding at the interval of one week. Egg size was measured using Dial clipper and weighed with electrical weighing balance.

Results: The percentage clutch size 7.04 ± 0.64, brood size 1.76 ± 0.70 and nesting success of 81% was recorded. The following trees provided the nesting sites as hole/cavities Ficus benghalensis (Barh) (23.5%), Dalbergia sissoo (Shisham) (35.2%), Acacia nilotica (Kikar) (11.7%), Ficus religiosa (Peepal) (14.7%), Mangifera indica (Mango) (8.8%).

Conclusion: More trees should be planted and wooden nest boxes should be provided at the human dwellings so that they can coexist with man.

Author Biographies

Muhammad Idnan

Department of Zoology, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

Hafiz Muhammad Jamil

Department of Zoology, Minhaj University, Lahore, Pakistan

Arshad Javid

Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

Muddasir Hassan Abbasi

Department of Zoology, University of Okara, Okara, Pakistan

Muhammad Altaf

The University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

Asif Shahzad

Department of Zoology, Minhaj University, Lahore, Pakistan

Asma Naeem

Department of Zoology, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan