Production and optimization of Amylase from A. niger isolated from legume seeds
Legumes are type of plant whose fruit is enclosed in a pod. Chick peas, cow peas, peas, broad beans and kidney beans all are type of legumes. Legume seeds are important source of protein. Legume seeds are more proteinacious than non legumes. Many fungi are pathogens of legumes they infect during storage. Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor and Rhizopus are common genera isolates from seeds. Whereas A.niger is predominant and most recovered isolate of legume seeds. A.niger is widely used organism and now it is extensively used for the productivity of amylase enzyme. Amylase enzymes have vast applications at industrial level where it is used for the production of fructose and glucose syrup from starch degradation, biofuel formation, and production of dough, juices and cakes and in brewing industry. Amylases are also used as diagnostic tool. The ability to degrade starch is used as a standard for the determination of α-amylase production by A.niger. The determination of optimum time, pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources are important for the better yield of the enzyme. A.niger produce amylase enzyme with greater extent at day 6 with pH 6 and at temperature 25 °C. It uses about all carbon and nitrogen sources but in maltose and ammonium sulphate production of amylase is higher. Submerged fermentation method is chosen technique for the production of amylase at laboratory level although it is not used widely at industrial level.
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