The Assessment of Depression Level Among Diabetic Patients in Karachi Using BDI (Beck’s Depression Inventory)

  • Kiran Rafiq
  • Shagufta Nesar
  • Zafar Saied Saify
  • Mohammad Azhar Mughal
  • Alina Rizvi
  • Aleeza Raza
  • Alisha Hassan
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Depression, BDI (Beck Depression Inventory), Outpatients.

Abstract

Background: Diabetes is co-morbid with various metabolic and psychological disorders. Diabetes and depression are both chronic conditions with allied adverse and complicated outcomes.

Objectives: The current study was designed and planned accordingly to elucidate the associated frequency of depression with DM (Diabetes Mellitus) type 2 and prescribing practice of doctors depending on the distressing reality and threatening figures.

Methodology: A prototype prospective study was monitored in different public and private sector hospitals and clinics of outpatient settings in Karachi after taking approval from the Ethical Review Board of Hamdard University. In this context, seven hundred patients having diabetes were covered in the study and their data were analyzed through the Statistical software version 20. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was the preferred approach to evaluate the depression level.

Results: The outcome of the study established the fact of high prevalence for the co-morbidity of stress, anxiety and depression among patients with diabetes in Karachi, specifically among age bracket from forty to sixty years. Unfortunately, 80% (544) of diabetic patients in the study were suffering from depression and anxiety, while only 22.05% (120) patients were taking antidepressants and they were not counseled for the root cause of the disease.  Severe depression (BDI score=38) was present in 100 subjects, moderate depression (BDI score=27) in 200 subjects, and mild depression was present in 175 of subjects. Being a patient of DM is itself a strong reason for contracting a depressive disorder. The result highlight improper treatment of depression in diabetic patients.

Conclusion: However, the current situation demands to follow proper treatment through effective and appropriate drugs to treat the disease from progressing.  Moreover, efforts should be undertaken to strengthen the healthcare system where practitioners, either doctors, pharmacists or nurses are liable for patient care in both the physical and psychological domains.

Author Biographies

Kiran Rafiq

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan

Shagufta Nesar

Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan

Zafar Saied Saify

International Center of Chemical & Biological Sciences, HEJ, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

Mohammad Azhar Mughal

Department of Pharmacology, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan

Alina Rizvi

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan

Aleeza Raza

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan

Alisha Hassan

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan

Published
2020-02-06