The Effect of Smoking on the Lipid Profile of Inhabitant Smokers of Hasilpur, District Bahawalpur, Pakistan

  • Mushtaq hussain lashari
  • Sumbel Sumera
  • Umer Farooq
  • Zia Ur Rehman
  • Nuzhat Sial
  • Farooq Ahmad
  • Fozia Afzal
  • Muhammad Saleem Aktar
  • Muhammad Nawaz
  • A. B. Gulshan
Keywords: Lipid Profile, Smokers, Nonsmokers HDL, LDL, VLDL

Abstract

Background: Health problem are culturally associated with smoking in developing countries. Many hazardous chemicals are taken up by direct or passive smoking causing lipid peroxidation resulting in oxidative stress.

Objectives: To estimate the occurrence of smoking and its effects on the lipid profile in populations of Hasilpur, Pakistan.

Methodology: The current study was conducted from April - August 2014. Out of 247 apparently healthy subjects of both genders (male=220; female=27), 134 were smokers and 113 were non-smokers. In order to analyze lipid profile, blood samples were collected in early morning hours from the selected members who were asked to fast all night. By using Chem-100 chemistry analyzer, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL were analyzed.

Results: The overall prevalence of smokers was 54.25%. The results showed 60.9% prevalence in males and 0% in females. The mean value of serum triglyceride in control, light smokers and heavy smokers was 147.4±11.7mg/dl, 190.8±41.4 and 205.3±29.7mg/dl, respectively. The results of cholesterol in control, light smokers and heavy smokers were 147.38±7.99mg/dl, 136.8 ±12. 8mg/dl and 173.44±8.63mg/dl, respectively. There was a considerable distinction in the mean level of serum triglyceride and cholesterol between the control group, light smokers and heavy smoker groups (P<00.5). The mean value of HDL of control, light smokers and heavy smokers was 30.93±1.30mg/dl, 31.10±2.45 and 34.58±1.55mg/dl, respectively. The mean values of LDL and VLDL of control, light smokers and heavy smokers were 110.46±3.63mg/dl, 106.00±4.52mg/dl, 117.19±3.48mg/dl and 33.54±3.11mg/dl, 49±9.02mg/dl, 41.06±5.34mg/dl, respectively. There was significant difference in the mean level of HDL, LDL and VLDL between the control group, light smokers and heavy smoker groups (P<0.05).

Conclusion: This study concluded that smoking is the reasons of variation in the lipid profile. Elevated period of smoking and the number of smoked cigarettes/day reason the alteration in serum lipid levels and is probably related with increased danger for coronary artery disease.

Author Biographies

Mushtaq hussain lashari

Department of Zoology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan

Sumbel Sumera

Department of Zoology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan

Umer Farooq

University College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan

Zia Ur Rehman

University College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan

Nuzhat Sial

Department of Zoology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan

Farooq Ahmad

Department of Zoology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan

Fozia Afzal

Department of Zoology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan

Muhammad Saleem Aktar

Faculty, of Veterinary Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan 

Muhammad Nawaz

Department of Environmental Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan

A. B. Gulshan

Department of Botany, Ghazi University D.G. Khan, Punjab, Pakistan

Published
2020-02-04