Probiotics as Human Health Promoters
Probiotics (Pro-life live entities) provide the health and well being with multitude of beneficial effects on humans and animals (and relief against varied disorders). Probiotics may manage lactose intolerance, elevate immune profile, prevent colorectal cancers, reduce cholesterol and triglyceride profile, lowering blood pressure and inflammatory process. They also prevent osteoporosis, allergic reactions and help suppress H. pylori infections and other pathological manifestations.
Microbial metabolites (even in the absence of live entities) may exert (analogous) effects on signal pathways and barrier functions. Such substances are referred as â€˜Postbioticsâ€™ (the plain metabolic byproduct of probiotics, bioactive manifestations in the host). Generally, postbiotics include secondary metabolites such as bacteriocins, organic acids, ethanol, acetaldehyde, reactive oxygen species (ROS). Such metabolites are inhibitory against pathogenic strains of different broad spectrum drug resistant microbial groups (MDR, XDR etc). Postbiotics are safe, apathogenic which may resist hydrolysis by enzymes of mammalian origin. It has been described that micro-RNA profile of human milk may exert the inhibitory effects of probiotics.
Our research group has been investigating the merits of mammalian milk as a viable source of probiotics that secrete bioactive peptides against MDR/biofilm producing strains (ref. Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus faecalis, a GIT probiont). These peptides are in the range of 10-16KDa molecular mass (sensitive to proteolytic enzymes as well). Genes coding for these peptides are plasmid associated. Mode of action of these peptides is bacteriostatic. Molecular identification of these Probiotic strains is being followed. This, on the whole marks an emphasis on biological operation of novel strains of Probiotic and their applications in medico-clinical areas to improve the human health and wellness.